RE: CV Joint or Worse?
Make a few left and right hand 90 degree turns plus 180's at slower speeds (as if making a turn off to a side street).
If the clicking gets worse this would strongly suggest a CV joint. It could make a popping noise in sync with the tire rotation. The bad CV joint typically would be on the opposite side of the direction of turn. This test is usually an excellent indicator. However the violent nature so quickly after the noise started is not typical of a CV joint failure. They usually make noise for weeks, months without any steering issues.
Thus would also check the following:
Could be a very worn wheel bearing that would make a grinding perhaps clicking noise.
Could be a brake problem, cracked or very warped rotor. How are the brake pads?.
Strongly suggest you jack up the front of the car and rotate each tire. Listen for noise and feel for roughness.
Grab the tire at the 3 and 9 o'clock positions and shake it to check for excess play.
Remove the tire and inspect the brake pads for excess wear, rotors for damage, look behind the steering knuckle at the CV joint. Feel for excess play, compare one side with the other. The joints do have some play.
The left CV joint typically fails first.
I would have this looked at ASAP as it is possible for the CV joint to break.
The violent nature of the problem is not typical of most part failures on this car thus something is very wrong.